How to Use Essential Oils Effectively

A Comprehensive Overview

By David Crow, L.Ac.

This article is a comprehensive overview of how to use essential oils effectively.

The article includes:

  • The Seven Best Ways of Using Essential Oils Effectively

  • How Essential Oils Work: Absorption and Effects

  • Contamination: Ten Important Facts To Know Before Purchasing

  • The Safe Use of Essential Oils

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The Seven Best Ways of Using Essential Oils
for Health and Healing

1) Inhalations

This is the use of essential oils on hot compress, in diffusers, or in hot water for inhalation. Standard dose is 10 drops. Best for respiratory and sinus, headaches. Caution: prolonged inhalation of concentrated essential oils can cause headaches, vertigo, dizziness, nausea, and lethargy.

2) Baths

The best way to use essential oils in the bath is to mix them first with salts or an emulsifier such as milk or sesame oil. Aromatic bath salts disperse the oils safely into the water, and milk and sesame oil emulsify the essential oil so that it disperses. Without salts or an emulsifier, drops of essential oils will float on the water and then get directly on the skin. Combined with the heat of the water, this can cause dermotoxicity, especially if the oils are of a heating nature. Oils that should be avoided in the bath include spicy oils such as cinnamon oil, oregano oil, thyme oil, and tulsi; phototoxic oils such as citruses, especially bergamot oil; and those with specific irritant potential such as lemongrass oil. The oils that are generally considered mild and safe for bath are lavender oil, clary sage oil, rose oil, geranium oil, frankincense oil, sandalwood oil, eucalyptus oil, and conifers such as cedar oil, fir oil, pine oil, pinon pine essential oil, spruce oil, and juniper oil to name a few. A generally safe dose is 5 - 10 drops, mixed with 1/2 to 1 cup of salt or emulsifier. Aromatic baths are excellent for skin problems, circulatory problems, respiratory symptoms, stress and nervous tension, insomnia, muscular and menstrual pains. Caution: overuse of essential oils in the bath can cause irritation. Use only mild, non-irritating oils for bath, such as lavender oil and clary sage oil.

3) Compresses

10 drops oil in 4 oz hot water, soak cloth, wrap.

Good for bruises, wounds, muscular aches and pains, dysmenorrhea, skin problems.

4) Facial steam

1 - 5 drops on hot water in a pot, cover head with a towel, steam face. Excellent for opening sinuses, headaches, skin treatment.

5) Massage

Pure essential oils are about 70 times more concentrated than the whole plant. Dilutions are typically 2% - 10%. For adults, a 2.5% dilution is recommended for most purposes. For children under 12, 1% is generally safe. A 2.5% blend for a 1 ounce bottle of carrier oil is 15 drops of essential oil.

1% blend = 6 drops per oz

2% blend = 12 drops per oz

3% blend = 18 drops per oz

5% blend = 30 drops per oz

10% blend = 60 drops per oz

Floracopeia infuses oils of jasmine, neroli, rose and vanilla with marula oil for our different massage oil blends.

6) Direct Palm Inhalation

Caution: This method of use should only be done with oils that can be safely applied to the skin (see the toxicology and safety section below). Apply 1-2 drops of oil to the palms, rub together gently and inhale deeply. This is an excellent method of use for a quick and easy exposure to the anti-microbial and other therapeutic uses of essential oils.

7) Diffusers

There are various types of diffusers on the market, with different advantages and disadvantages.

Candle diffusers

Usually a heat resistant vessel for water and essential oils, and a heat resistant platform that holds the vessel over a small candle.

Advantages: very simple to use; provides light background fragrancing

Disadvantages: does not produce strong concentration for therapeutic benefits.

Electric heat diffusers

Small absorbent pads are placed inside of a heating chamber with ventilation that allows the aromatic compounds to evaporate into the surrounding air.

Advantages: easy to use; minimal maintenance; can diffuse thicker oils.

Disadvantages: heat damages some aromatic compounds.

Cool air nebulizing diffusers

A system that uses air pressure generated by a compressing unit to vaporize the essential oils. A glass nebulizing bulb serves as a condenser, allowing only the finest particles of the essential oil to escape into the air.

Advantages: strong diffusion maximizes therapeutic benefits in respiratory conditions.

Disadvantages: diffusers need to be cleaned regularly. More viscous oils cannot be diffused (such as sandalwood oil or ylang ylang oil).

Timers Electric heat and cool air nebulizers can be purchased with timers, to produce intermittent diffusion. This reduces the amount of oil consumed, and prevents over-saturation in a room.


The Absorption and Effects of Essential Oils


Essential oils probably exert their most powerful and direct pharmacological effects systemically via the blood supply to the brain. They also have an indirect effect via the olfactory nerve pathways into the brain. Essential oil fragrances are absorbed through blood circulation and nerve pathways from the sinuses into the central glands of the brain, which control emotional, neurological, and immunological functions.


Essential oils are absorbed in minute quantities through the skin, depending on the oil, dilution, and application (carrier oil, compress, etc). Many of the indications for specific oils include various skin conditions.


Essential oils are inhaled during treatment, which have a direct effect on the sinuses, throat, and lungs. Many essential oils are specific medicines for respiratory conditions.


Many essential oils have beneficial effects on circulatory problems, both through dermal and respiratory absorption. These oils enhance the circulation stimulating effects of massage.

Adulteration and Contamination of Essential Oils

The 10 Most Important Points To Know Before You Purchase Essential Oils

1) “Pure”

In the US, the term “pure” has no legal meaning and is often applied to just about anything.

2) Synthetic Fragrances

Certain oils do not exist in a natural state, and are only available as synthetic fragrances or “bouqueted” fragrances (combination of essential oils, absolutes, and synthetics). These include honeysuckle, linden, gardenia, frangipani.

3) Adulteration

The more expensive an oil, the more risk of adulteration. Some oils are highly adulterated, such as melissa (lemon balm), rose, and sandalwood.

4) Chain of Supply

The fragrance industry has many levels of buyers and suppliers. The more levels that are involved, the more there is risk of adulteration. Large volumes of oils are sold as “genuine” and “pure,” which are not. False advertising is rampant in the aromatherapy world. It is best to get oils directly from the distiller. Some pesticides are carried over in the extracting process, some are not. Expressed citrus oils contain pesticide residues.

5) Grades

Lower grades of oils are frequently sold as higher. A good example is ylang ylang.

6) Extenders

Many oils are “extended” using synthetic or natural solvents. Expensive oils are frequently extended with jojoba. Some oils are extended to make them more pourable, like benzoin; the solvent is frequently questionable.

7) Bulking

Bulking is the post-distillation combining of oils from one or more species, or loading plants of the same species from different harvests into the still together. Dried plant material from different years may be bulked with fresh. Bulking is done to make the product cheaper and/or to make it conform to some standard desirable to the fragrance or flavoring industries.

8) Rectified or Redistilled

Oils that have had natural components removed from them: terpene-less oils, furocoumarin-free oils.

9) Folded

Oils, (usually citrus) that have been redistilled a number of times to remove more of the monoterpenes (usually) to make the oil more desirable for the flavoring industry.

10) Reconstituted

Oils that have had natural or synthetic chemical components added to them after distillation.

The Safe Use of Essential Oils

In general, when used properly essential oils are quite safe and highly beneficial. However, because their uses are still relatively unknown, people can and do hurt themselves by using these highly concentrated botanical substances improperly.

Toxicology and Safety

  • Do not use essential oils internally.

  • Do not apply directly to skin; always dilute with carrier oil.

  • Keep out of reach of children.

  • Avoid contact with eyes and mucous membranes.

  • Do not use citrus oils before exposure to UV light.

  • Use only pure essential oils; avoid synthetic fragrances.

  • Do not use essential oils on infants, children, pregnant women, the elderly, or those with serious health problems, without advanced medical study.

  • Avoid prolonged exposure without ventilation.

  • Store essential oils and carrier oils properly to avoid degradation and rancidity.

Do not use essential oils internally:

There are two exceptions to this rule.

The first is properly administered dosages of essential oil medications prescribed by a licensed physician. This is now occurring in certain European clinics, but is rarely available in the US. People should avoid using essential oils internally if prescribed by a lay practitioner, especially if the practitioner’s education is primarily from the marketing perspective rather than clinical.

The second exception is biocompatible levels of essential oil ingestion when taken as part of the diet. A good example of this is oregano oil. Oregano oil is widely marketed for internal consumption, with numerous claims made about its therapeutic efficacy. In actual practice, the internal consumption of this oil frequently causes the typical symptoms associated with the ingestion of essential oils, such as extreme gastric hyperacidity. On the other hand, the use of oregano as a fresh herb, steamed at the end of food preparation, provides all the benefits of oregano oil at a biocompatible level, with none of the gastric dangers.

Should accidental ingestion of any significant amount of an essential oil occur, immediately call your local Poison Control Center. Do not induce vomiting. Do not give water if breathing or swallowing is difficult.

Do not apply directly to skin; always dilute with carrier oil.

Essential oils are very concentrated. Dilute all essential oils before applying to the skin, either in a fatty oil, or in water as when used on a compress.

There are two exceptions to this rule.

The first is the use of attars as natural perfumes. Because the floral essences are distilled into a base of sandalwood oil, the sandalwood oil acts as a carrier which dilutes the potency of the pure essential oil.

The second is the reasonable use of mild essential oils that have a well documented history of safety. The best example of this is lavender; however, even lavender can be problematic for some people.

Skin reactivity is becoming more of a problem as synthetic aroma chemicals become more common adulterants in the essential oil industry. A general rule is to never apply more than one to two drops of undiluted oil to the skin. Patch testing is always advisable. For people with sensitive skin, always test a small area with a diluted oil before applying over a larger area. For general non-medical use, avoid essential oils with highly sensitive skin and with any instances of skin allergies, severe inflammation and dermatitis. Pure essential oils are much less dangerous than synthetic aroma chemicals.

Skin reactions are dependent on the type of oil, the concentration of the oil, and the condition of the skin. It is best to check with clients to determine any prior history of skin reactions before using oils, either for dermal or respiratory applications. Old and oxidized oils are more prone to cause reactions, especially rashes.

Refrigerate fatty carrier oils to prevent rancidity. Essential oils generally have a shelf life of one to three years. Some get better with age, such as sandalwood oil, vetiver oil, and patchouli oil. The citrus oils are most prone to degradation, and should be used within one year. Skin reactions to essential oils can take three forms:

  • Irritation: A small number of oils are strongly or severely irritant. These include horseradish, mustard, garlic, and onion (which are rarely used in aromatherapy practice). Some oils used in massage practice can be moderately irritant, such as cinnamon bark oil, clove, fennel, and verbena. These oils should be used cautiously or avoided in cases of skin sensitivity.

  • Sensitization: Skin sensitization means an allergic skin reaction; this usually manifests as a rash. There are relatively few oils used in a typical massage practice that will produce sensitization under normal applications in a carrier oil. However, there are a number of reports on Pubmed of allergic reactions to essential oils. These include contact dermatitis, eczema, asthma, and pruritic erythematous eruptions. These cases were predominantly among those who used essential oils professionally for long periods of time, such as massage therapists and estheticians. The cases frequently involved exposure to numerous essential oils, and it is also likely that the quality of the oils was poor.

  • Phototoxicity: Some essential oils can strongly increase sensitivity to sunlight when applied to the skin. This is especially dangerous when applied undiluted to the skin, but even low concentrations in a carrier oil can cause problems if followed by exposure to sun or tanning lamps.

Phototoxicity will be much stronger directly after application of the oil, and will gradually decrease over an eight to twelve hour period; if higher than normal concentrations are used it can be longer. Most of the phototoxic oils are also photocarcinogenic. The most common oils which cause phototoxicity are the citruses; bergamot oil is the most reactive. Some citruses are phototoxic if expressed, but not if distilled, such as lemon oil and lime oil. Other oils include marigold oil (tagetes), verbena, and angelica oil.

The best practice is to use proper dilutions, avoid direct exposure to UV rays after application, and avoid the use of citrus oils if exposure will be occurring after treatment.

Dilution with Carrier Oils

Measurements/conversions (by volume)

30 ml = 1 fl oz = 600 drops = 2 tablespoons
15 ml = 1/2 fl oz = 300 drops = 1 tablespoon
5 ml = 1/6 fl oz = 100 drops = 1 teaspoon
1 ml = 1/30 fl oz = 20 drops = 1/5 teaspoon

To achieve a specific dilution:

For one fluid (1 oz) ounce of Carrier Oil:

1% of 600 drops (1 fl oz) = 6 drops
2% of 600 drops (1 fl oz) = 12 drops
2.5% of 600 drops (1 fl oz) = 15 drops
5% of 600 drops (1 fl oz) = 30 drops
10% of 600 drops (1 fl oz) = 60 drops

The best treatment for skin irritation from essential oils is to apply a fatty oil, such as coconut, which will dilute the impact of the essential oils. Avoid contact with eyes and mucous membranes. If an essential oil gets into the eye, do not rub it. Saturate a cotton ball with milk or vegetable oil and wipe over the area affected. In severe instances flood the eye area with lukewarm water for fifteen minutes.

General Guidelines:

  • Take special precautions with applications near delicate skin areas.

  • Use only pure essential oils; avoid synthetic fragrances.

  • Avoid prolonged exposure without ventilation.

  • Overexposure to essential oils, especially in confined areas, can cause dizziness, nausea, light headedness, headache, blood sugar imbalances, irritability, euphoria.

  • When exposed to high levels of essential oils make sure to keep the room well ventilated.

  • Store essential oils and carrier oils properly to avoid degradation and rancidity.

  • Air, heat and light degrade essential oils.

  • Store essential oils in a cool, dark room and always keep your oils tightly sealed.

  • Do not use essential oils on infants, children, pregnant women, the elderly, or those with serious health problems, without advanced medical study.

  • Before experimenting with an oil, become familiar with its properties, dose, and precautions.

  • When in doubt about a condition or an oil, consult a qualified medical specialist.

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